General cargo includes packaged cargo requiring special packaging. As it can be used boxes, bales, bags, boxes, drum packages or containers. Before transportation, the cargo is trained - packaging, labeling.
Types of general cargo:
When organizing the transportation of general cargoes, it is necessary to take into account their type, features, and requirements that apply to the transportation of certain types of cargo. They are classified according to several criteria:
- by weight of the place;
- in size;
- features of storage mode;
- transportation requirements, etc.
- separate classification - high cost of equipment, cargo and its insurance
Cargo is divided by weight - into light and heavy, in size - standard, long and oversized. General cargo includes:
- metal and metal ingots;
- vehicles and other mobile equipment;
- reinforced concrete products - building materials and structures;
- large cargoes - machinery, machine tools, equipment;
- wood and lumber;
- packaged goods and piece goods packed in boxes and boxes, bags or bales.
Features of transportation of general cargo
In preparation for transportation, a study is made of the transport characteristics of the cargo, and a plan is made to place it on the transport. This takes into account:
- stacking height;
- the possibility of displacement of cargo during transportation;
- requirements for compliance with temperature and humidity conditions, ventilation;
- possibility of damage or partial loss of cargo quality during transportation under the influence of negative factors - moisture, pollution, temperature, etc.
Some goods have the properties of spontaneous combustion, self-heating, explosion, which also needs to be taken into account when planning the placement of cargo in transport. It takes into account the possibility of negative interaction of goods when placing them in the same cargo room.
On this basis, general cargo can be divided into the following groups:
- resistant to aggressive factors;
- having aggressive chemical properties.
Transportation of general cargo
For the international transport of general cargo used various types of transport:
- land - Trucking, railway transportation;
- sea - ships
When choosing a type of vehicle, the specialists of the logistics company Express Logistics take into account the type of cargo, requirements for the conditions of transportation and the urgency of delivery.
The fastest mode of transportation is air. At the same time, the cost of transportation increases significantly, so air transport is used only for the transport of small loads and only when the most important requirement is the speed of delivery of the goods to the addressee.
For large consignments, transport by sea is optimal. This type of freight is used for trade operations between countries with access to the sea, or as part of multimodal freight.
The developed network of railways and highways has made land transport modes the most popular - on the territory of the countries participating in trade transactions. Automotive and rail transport are economical and reliable, they are used to transport cargoes of any size, if it is possible to deliver them by land.
The use of road transport allows for the delivery of goods through the “door to door” system. Specialists of the logistics company Express Logistics will select the optimal transportation route, arrange packing and labeling of the goods, if necessary, help arrange insurance for the goods transported, prepare accompanying and customs documents for the cargo.